The theoretical foundations are industrial organization, organizational economy and the vision based on resources and capabilities. The research was conducted with a sample not probabilistic comprised 32 gastronomic establishments located in major tourist areas of the city Cartagena de Indias. A survey was conducted to measure the internal capabilities and identify the perceptions of entrepreneurs about the specific external environment. Results showed that overall establishments have the highest valuation in financial capabilities followed by marketing capabilities while the lowest rating was for the managerial capabilities followed by the human capabilities.
The Multinational Corporation Five Approaches to Organizational Design Managers must make choices about how to group people together to perform their work. Five common approaches — functional, divisional, matrix, team, and networking—help managers determine departmental groupings grouping of positions into departments.
The five structures are basic organizational structures, which are then adapted to an organization's needs.
All five approaches combine varying elements of mechanistic and organic structures. For example, the organizational design trend today incorporates a minimum of bureaucratic features and displays more features of the organic design with a decentralized authority structure, fewer rules and procedures, and so on.
Functional structure The functional structure groups positions into work units based on similar activities, skills, expertise, and resources see Figure 1 for a functional organizational chart. Production, marketing, finance, and human resources are common groupings within a functional structure.
Not only can this structure improve productivity by minimizing duplication of personnel and equipment, but it also makes employees comfortable and simplifies training as well.
But the functional structure has many downsides that may make it inappropriate for some organizations. Here are a few examples: The functional structure can result in narrowed perspectives because of the separateness of different department work groups.
Managers may have a hard time relating to marketing, for example, which is often in an entirely different grouping. As a result, anticipating or reacting to changing consumer needs may be difficult.
In addition, reduced cooperation and communication may occur.
Decisions and communication are slow to take place because of the many layers of hierarchy. Authority is more centralized. The functional structure gives managers experience in only one field—their own.
Managers do not have the opportunity to see how all the firm's departments work together and understand their interrelationships and interdependence. In the long run, this specialization results in executives with narrow backgrounds and little training handling top management duties.
Divisional structure Because managers in large companies may have difficulty keeping track of all their company's products and activities, specialized departments may develop. These departments are divided according to their organizational outputs.
Examples include departments created to distinguish among production, customer service, and geographical categories. This grouping of departments is called divisional structure see Figure 2. These departments allow managers to better focus their resources and results.Organizational behavior (OB) or organisational behaviour is "the study of human behavior in organizational settings, the interface between human behavior and .
a. affect group behavior more than individual behavior b. change rapidly to meet environmental and market changes c. contribute positively to organizational performance. Organizational behavior is a broad field comprised of many subject areas.
Work behaviors are typically examined at different levels—individual be- havior, group behavior, and collective behavior across the organization—. Conclusion The three categories of organizational behavior are individual, group, and organizational. Individual behavior deals with only the individual’s personality, the group behavior deals with a group of personalities, and the organizational behavior deals with the personalities of the organization itself.
Organizational conflict is the discord that arises when the goals, interests or values of different individuals or groups are incompatible and those individuals or groups block or thwart one another’s attempts to achieve their objective. Sep 28, · Organizational Behavior Blog Archive (20) November (1) Mid-Term Essay Exam Questions Hi Class, Discuss the Hawthorne Studies and its relevance to research on group norms.
Be as specific as possible in your description of the Hawthorne Studies and their relevance.