The environment can affect health through physical exposures, such as air pollution OECD, b. A large body of work has documented the effects of exposure to particulate matter solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and morbidity Brook et al. Research has identified specific physiologic mechanisms by which these exposures affect inflammatory, autonomic, and vascular processes Brook et al.
This is an excerpt from Physical Activity and Obesity, Second Editionby Claude Bouchard, PhD Built Environments and Physical Activity in Adults There is consistent evidence that adults who live in walkable communities walk and cycle more for transportation, and have higher levels of total physical activity, than those who live in low-walkable suburban areas 3.
Differences between neighborhood types of 30 to 60 min per week of physical activity have been documented with both self-reports and objective measures such as accelerometers 4. Adults who live near parks and other recreation facilities generally do more recreational and total physical activity.
This association has been documented in numerous studies, but due to the wide variety of methods used, it is not possible to quantify the effects. The aesthetics of recreation facilities and communities in general have been linked with physical activity 3, 4, 6.
Other built-environment characteristics have not been studied enough or have yielded inconsistent results, including sidewalk presence and quality, other road characteristics, availability of parking, and hills.
Just a few studies of built environments have been reported for adults aged 65 years or greater. The results generally confirm that the physical activity associations with walkable community designs and proximity of recreation facilities generalize to older adults 6.
Built Environments and Physical Activity in Youth Connections between built environments and physical activity have been documented for children and adolescents. Living in proximity to parks and other recreation facilities, as well as high aesthetic qualities, has been associated with higher physical activity among youth 6.
This can be interpreted as suggesting that children need suitable places to play near their homes. Adolescents living in walkable neighborhoods are usually found to be more active than their suburban counterparts 6. More young people walk or cycle to school when they live in walkable neighborhoods 7.
However, children may use cul-de-sacs as play areas because traffic is low. Thus, suburban road networks with low connectivity may simultaneously reduce walking to school and facilitate active recreation among youth 6.
For youth, there is better evidence that sidewalks are associated with high physical activity levels 6. School grounds designed for a variety of activity opportunities may stimulate more activity during free time, such as after lunch 8.
Young people generally seem to benefit from the same built-environment factors as adults, but there are additional settings e. Causal Role of Built Environments Most of the studies on built environments and physical activity are cross-sectional, and they have been criticized because of the possibility that people who like physical activity move to walkable neighborhoods with parks.
Several studies show there is some selection into activity-friendly communities, and there may not be enough such communities to meet the demand 9. However, it does not appear that self-selection can explain all the findings because, consistent with ecological models, both psychological and environmental factors seem to operate.
Auto enthusiasts who lived in walkable neighborhoods did not walk more, but living in suburban neighborhoods seemed to suppress physical activity among walking enthusiasts 9. A major reason for the reliance on cross-sectional studies is that it is not possible to conduct a randomized trial in which people are assigned to live in different neighborhoods.
However, there are several quasi-experimental evaluations of built-environment changes, though most are on a small scale. Building new trails usually increased trail use, especially when the trails were located in densely populated areas; introducing protected cycling lanes promoted cycling in Europe; changing road designs to slow traffic led to increased walking and cycling 10 ; and painting school playgrounds to stimulate active games led to long-term physical activity increases These studies support a tentative conclusion that built environments can be causal influences on physical activity.
However, these few studies are not sufficient to quantify the effects of built-environment changes. Strengths and Weaknesses Several aspects of this literature generate confidence in the results. The key findings about walkable neighborhoods, proximity of recreation facilities, and aesthetics have been replicated in numerous studies that differ in study designs, locations, and population characteristics.
Many studies have used objective measures of built environments, physical activity, or both, so the literature is not dependent on only self-report measures. Transdisciplinary collaborations are producing innovations in models, measures, and analyses. It is not well understood how built environment—physical activity associations may generalize to groups at high risk for physical inactivity, obesity, or chronic diseases.The Environment's Affect on Human Behavior There are thousands of factors each day that we come in contact with that literally influence the way we behave and how we interact with others around us.
Listing all factors is impossible. Material culture is a term representative of the physical creations made, used, or shared by the members of a certain society; it is the society’s buffer against the environment.
The components of material culture are all the creations (objects) of the human kind and mind, for example, cars, faucets, computers, trees, minerals just to mention. A fundamental aspect of the workplace environment that contributes to such employee behaviour is the layout of office space.
Conventional workplace designs tend to . This new environment will have a different culture, ideology, values, etc. The home atmosphere, parental love and affection, association with sibling, neighbours, peers, teachers, etc. will create an entirely different and new atmosphere. The question we are answering is, how does culture influence identity development?
By the end of this paper you would be able to conclude that no matter what the surroundings of an individual is it will have some sort of an effect on either the physical or mental aspects of an individual.
Many aspects of the physical and social environment can affect people’s health. 1 Spatial contexts linked to regions or neighborhoods are among _____ 1 Although Environmental factors that affect physical activity (primarily through their effect on active life-styles, including walking) and access to healthy foods (rather than calorie.